Bacteria classification


Bacteria are single celled microbes.

The cell structure is simpler than that of other organism as there is no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

Instead their control centre containing the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA.

Some bacteria have an extra circle of genetic material called plasmid

The plasmid often contains genes that give the bacteria some advantage over other bacteria.

For example it may contain gene that make the bacterium resistant to a certain antibiotics.

Bacteria are found in different form :- 
1. Coccus
2. Bacillus 
3. Spirilium
4. Vibrio
5. Spirillium

👉 Coccus :- The spherical shape bacteria is called coccus which is found in different form:-
1. Monococcus :- Single spherical bacteria is called monococcus.
Example :- micrococcus , Luteus 

2. Diplococcus :- Two spherical  shape bacteria joint with each other called diplococcus pneumoniae 

3. Tetracoccus :- Four spherical shape bacteria joint with each other called tetracoccus.
Example :- Micrococcus Luteus

4. Streptococcus :- When spherical shape found in the form of chain called streptococcus.
Example :- Streptococcus lactis

5. Stephylococcus :- When spherical shape bacteria found in the form of bunch called stephylococcus.

Example :- Stephylococcus aureus.

👉 Bacillus:- Rod shape bacteria is called bacillus which is found in different form.
Pallisade Bacillus

👉 Spirillium :- The spiral shape bacteria is called Spirillium.

👉 Vibrio :- The commas shape bacteria is called Vibrio.
Example :- Vibriocholerae

Now we see about eubacteria

Eubacteria is true form of bacteria. 

Eubacteria is unicellular prokaryotic organism with heterotrophic mode of nutrition but some eubacteria also synthesis their own food either by the process of bacteria photosynthesisor by using chemical.

Bacteria classification

The largest bacteria is known as spirilium laid law (15 micron )

The smallest bacteria is known as Dialister pneumosinthes which is .15 micron in diameter.

Largest marine bacteria is known as Thiomargarita rhamibiemis.

Structure of eubacteria

👉 It is unicellular prokaryotic organism.

Bacteria classification

👉 It is most primitive form of organism which is adapted for unfavourable condition due to presence of its chemical nature of cell wall.

👉 The cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan

👉 The cell wall contains two important component:-
1. Carbohydrates :- Carbohydrate is found in the form of glucose, mannose and amino sugar.

2. Protein :- This component of cell wall contains D - Alanine and G - Alanine along with non - proteinous amino acids in the form of teichoic acid / muramic acid.

👉 Externally , the cell wall covered with thin slimy layer of muco polysaccharide called mussilagous sheeth.

👉 On the inner side of plasma membrane there is presence of respiratory enzymes.

👉 The place between cell wall and cell membrane is called berryplasmic space which acts as a lysosome.

👉 Plasma membrane invaginates to form three different types of structure i.e. Flagella , pilli and fimbraie.

👉 Flagella help in movement where as fimbraie / pilli helps in attachment with other bacterial cell.

👉 Plasma membrane invaginates to form structure called mesosome.

👉 The cytoplasm of bacterial cell contains different kinds of structure :-

Ribosome :- The eubacterial cell contains only membraneless cell organell in the. Form of ribosome which is of 70s type and it is found in different stage.

Dissociated state of ribosome :- When both sub unit of ribosome are separated before protein synthesis called Dissociated state of ribosome in which smaller sub-unit of ribosome are of 30s type and larger sub-unit of ribosome are of 50s type.

Associated state of ribosome :- During protein synthesis both sub- unit of ribosome under high temperature of magnesium ion attached with each other called Associated state of ribosome.

The eubacteria contains bacterial chromosome / genepore which is made up of circular DNA and non - histome protein.

The eubacteria contains only one chromosome which is also called genepore.

There is presence of extra chromosomal DNA called plasmid.

The part of plasmid which is attached with genepore / bacterial chromosome is also called episome.

The cytoplasm also contain reserve food in the form of glycogen granule.

There is presence of volutin granule which is also called phosphate region which provide phisphate you mean  requirement.

In photo autotrophic bacteria there is presence of group of photosynthesis in structure called chromatophore.

In case of eubacteria locomotion take place with helps of Flagella which is made up of special kind of protein called flagelline.

Types of eubacteria

It is classified into different group on the basis of observable character.

1. On the basis of the Flagella
2. On the basis of shape of bacteria
3. On the basis of mode of nutrition.

On the basis of the Flagella:-

On the basis of number and position of Flagella , bacteria are grouped into different group into different categories:-

👉 Atrichous :- A bacteria which does not contains Flagella called atrichous.
 Example :- Diptheria, Enterobacteria etc.

👉 Monotrichous :- When one Flagella arises at one end of bacteria called monotrichous.
Example :- Vibrio cholerae, pesudomonas 

👉 Amphitrichous:- Presence of one Flagella at both end of bacteria called amphitrichous.
Example :- Rhodospirillium

👉 Cephanotrichous :- Presence of one flagella ( tuft of Flagella ) from one end of bacteria called cephanotrichous.
Example :- pesudomonas , Fluorescence etc.

👉 Lophotrichous :- When tuft of flagella arises from both end of bacteria called lophotrichous.
Example :- spirilla 

👉 Peritrichous :- When bacteria is covered with Flagella called Peritrichous bacteria.
Example :- Azotobacter , Escherichiacoli etc.

On the basis of  shape

Bacteria are found in different form :- 
1. Coccus
2. Bacillus 
3. Spirilium
4. Vibrio

On the basis of mode of nutrition

Bacteria are found in two different form:- 

👉 Autotrophic :- The bacteria which is able to synthesis own food are called autotrophic bacteria.

The autotrophic bacteria are grouped into two categories :- 
A. Photoautotrophic bacteria / photoautophs 

A. Photoautotrophic bacteria / photoautophs:-

In case of bacteria , the synthesis of food take place in presence of light without photolysis of water called photoautophs.

In this case, there is no release of oxygen during the process of photosynthesis.

Example :- purple sulphur bacteria :- chromatium
Green sulphur bacteria :- Chlrobium

B.  Chemoautotrophs :- The bacteria which can synthesis their own food by using chemical energy which is obtained by oxidation of organic and inorganic compound.
Example :- Nitrosomonas , Nitrococcus, Nitrobacteria

👉 Heterotrophic :- The bacteria which is unable to synthesise their own food and it obtained food from other sources of organism is called heterotrophic.

It is found in different form :-
Parasitic bacteria
Saprotropic bacteria


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March 23, 2020 at 6:35 PM ×

Thanks, this post is very helpful for me.

Congrats bro Kritika you got PERTAMAX...! hehehehe...

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