Respiratory system


The respiratory system is a collection of organ responsible for taking in oxygen and exhaling of carbondioxide.

In most fish and a number of other aquatic animals ( both vertebrates and invertibrates) the respiratory system consist of gills, which are either partially or completely external organ, bathed in the watery environment.

The water flows over the gills by a variety of active or passive means.

Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or very flat filaments and lammelae which expose a very large surface area.

Other animals such as insects, have respiratory system with  the very simple anatomical features and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange of gas exchange and can be opposite to that in animals.

The respiratory system in plant includes anatomical features such as stomata that are found in various part of plants.

 The main features of respiratory system includes transporting air into and out of lungs, protecting the body against harmhul particles that are inhaled and it is most important function, the exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide, so its basically about breathing.

Now let's see a diagram and we will go through the main component of respiratory system starting with the nose and the nassal cavity, the mouth or oral cavity, the pharynx is considered a part of the digestive system as well as the respiratory system, and it connects the respiratory opening to the larynx and oesophagus.

The oesophagus is not a part of respiratory system, larynx also called the voice box because the vocal cords are located here.

The trachea also called windpipe, it connects to the bronchi, which merge into smaller tubes called bronchioles.

And, the bronchioles connect to tiny air sacs called alveoli.

Now let's go through a very basic look at what happens during the breathing process. so, air is breathed in through the nose, it gets spread out by these shelf - like things here called conchae.

The choncae help humidity the air and trap some inhaled particles.

They also warm the air.

The air next passes through the pharynx enters the trachea. On note here, this little flap like structure is called the epiglottis and it has an important function.

During breathing it is pointed upward allowing air flow into the trachea, however, during swallowing it fold down to prevent food into the oesophagus.

If food does enter the trachea, the gag reflex is induced to protect the respiratory system.

The epiglottis here, this little thing shows you how amazing the human body is!

        Anyways back to air flows so air continues down the trachea and enters in the bronchi. From there it enters smaller bronchioles and finally into alveoli which are surrounded by a network of capillaries.

Oxygen enters the alveolar sac and the gas exchange occurs capillaries give up their waste carbondioxide and pick up the oxygen.

Carbondioxide is then exhaled through and the oxygen picked up by the blood return to the heart.

During this breathing process the diaphragm is busy as well contracting as we breath, in which lungs allow to expand and relaxing as we exhale.

Some minor respiratory disorders include the common cold, influenza, acute bronchitis , which is inflammation of bronchi and pneumonia which is inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli. 

Some of the more demanding disorders include chronic bronchitis, where the bronchi become inflammation and narrowed, mainly caused by tobacco, smoke, emphysema, where the alveoli become overstretched and lungs cancer which is in almost 9 cases out of 10 cases is caused by tobacco smoke.

Pathway of the respiratory system

👉 Inhalation:- 

Nasal cavities ( or oral cavity) > pharynx> trachea> primary bronchi (right and left) > tertiary bronchi> bronchioles> alveoli/ site of gas exchange.

👉 Exhalation:-

Relaxation of external intercoastal muscle and diaphragm> return of diaphragm, ribs sternum to resting position> Restore thoracic cavity to preinspiratory  volume> increases pressure in lungs> air is exhaled.

What can you do to maintain or improve respiratory system health?

Maintain a healthy weight, excess weight compresses respiratory muscles and puts more stress on your lungs.

Drink plenty of water, dehydration can cause the muscles lining your airways to thicken and become sticky, making you more susceptible to illness.

Consume food rich in vitamin, mineral and antioxidants such as fruits, veggies and nuts, which can help to reduce inflammation and fight oxidative damage.

Limit exposure to common allergens such as dust mites, pollen and animal danger.

Maintain good hygiene, many respiratory virus are transmitted because of bad hygiene and poor hand washing.

Don't over consume alcohol, it dehydrates the body and weakens the immune system.

Get more active regular aerobic activity can help our respiratory system. Add indoor plants, plants have been shown to help improve air quality.

As you can see the respiratory system has a major impact on overall health, as you may already know, breathing is a kind of important process so, eat a healthy diet, maintain n active lifestyle and keep us good hygiene.
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